Eisenhower School faculty come from diverse backgrounds serving defense, government, private industry and research concerns attaining senior status.
While at the Office of the Secretary of Defense, CDR Aboul-Enein helped prepare Defense Department officials engage in ministerial level talks with their counterparts from Morocco to the Persian Gulf. He advised Combatant Commands, the House Homeland Security Committee, the NYPD, and the Department of Homeland Security on Violent Islamist radicalization. CDR Aboul-Enein also serves as Military Adjunct Faculty for Middle East Counter-Terrorism Analysis at the National Intelligence University. CDR Aboul-Enein was a Distinguished Judge for the 2012 Secretary of Defense and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs National Security Essay Contest. He is rated proficient in the Egyptian, Peninsular, Levantine, Modern Standard (Upper Level) and Iraqi dialects of Arabic by the Defense Language Institute.
His education consists of a B.B.A from the University of Mississippi, an M.B.A and Masters in Health Services Administration from the University of Arkansas, an M.S. in Strategic Intelligence from the National Intelligence University, as well as an M.S. in National Resource Strategy from the Industrial College of the Armed Forces (Class of 2009-2010).
CDR Aboul-Enein continues to publish articles on Islamist militancy, Arab affairs, and Middle East military tactics for Military Review, the Infantry Journal, the Marine Corps Gazette, Small Wars Journal.com, and the Foreign Area Officer Journal. CDR Aboul-Enein is author of Ayman Al-Zawahiri: The Ideologue of Modern Islamic Militancy, published by the U.S. Air Force Counter Proliferation Center in March 2004.
His operational tours include Liberia, Bosnia, and the Persian Gulf. CDR Aboul-Eneins personal awards include the Army Commendation Medal presented by General Tommy Franks, the Joint Service Achievement Medal presented by the Commandant of the Joint Forces Staff College and the Defense Meritorious Service Medal (DMSM) awarded by the Secretary of Defense, a second DMSM awarded by the DIA Director for Analysis.
COL Addo has a BA in Computer Science from Texas Southern University, an MA for International Relations from St Marys University and an MA for Logistics Management from Florida Institute of Technology. He is also a graduate of the Industrial College of the Armed Forces.
Mr. Altieri serves as Professor and Chair of the Department of Acquisition, Industrial College of the Armed Forces. He has been a Professor at ICAF since 1992 and became Chair of the Department in 2004.
Mr. Altieri served as an officer in the U.S. Army from 1967-1995, serving a majority of that time as an attorney with the U.S. Army Judge Advocate General’s Corps. Following commissioning upon graduation from the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, Airborne and Ranger training, and initial Infantry officer assignments, he commanded “B” Company, 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division, in Vietnam. Following Vietnam duty, he was enrolled at Albany Law School, Union University, Albany, New York, graduating in 1974 with a Juris Doctor degree. Upon completing the bar examination, he was admitted to practice law before New York State courts and was later admitted to practice before Federal courts as a Army JAG Officer. His JAG service included Chief Counsel assignments with the Army Materiel Command. He was the Senior Military Assistant to the Army General Counsel in the Office of the Secretary of the Army, Pentagon, from 1984-1988, and the Chief Counsel, U.S. Army Information Systems Selection and Acquisition Agency, 1989-1992. While in the Pentagon, he was also the Army Legal Member of the Defense Acquisition Regulatory Council. Mr. Altieri is a graduate of the Army Command and General Staff College, the Army JAG Graduate Course, and the Industrial College of the Armed Forces.Functional Expertise:
Mr. Altieri has traveled extensively in Asia through his leadership of the ICAF Information Technology Industry Study. He currently serves as the Asia-Pacific Coordinator of the Industry Studies Program. He also has served as faculty of the Russia Regional Security Study.
David was a co-author of the book Getting Results through Learning, which had more than 100 thousand copies sold by the Government Printing Office and included a forward by Vice President Al Gore. He was a member of the first cohort of the Defense Leadership and Management Program. He was the architect of the Department of the Navy's Civilian Leadership Development framework. He has received various awards, including a Commendation for Meritorious Service from the Marine Corps, the Vice President's Hammer Award and the HRD Leadership Award from the Graduate School of the US Department of Agriculture. David has a BA degree in Liberal Arts from the University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth, and an MA in Luso-Brazilian Literature and Latin-American Studies and an MA in History and African Studies, both from Indiana University-Bloomington.Areas of Interest:
A former Air Force officer, he served in active duty faculty positions at ICAF and the National War College. While on active duty, he commanded combat flying units at the squadron and group level, including command of Al Udeid AB, Qatar during Operation Enduring Freedom. His publications include Airpower Against an Army, a book on military innovation. It was one of the ten books selected for the Air Force Chief of Staffs reading list, senior officer category, from 1997-2002.
Dr. Basile joined the ICAF faculty on 1 October 2007. He is a Professor of Acquisition participating in the Manufacturing Industry Study. His major area of academic interest includes developing strategies and capabilities to address joint, multinational, and interagency integration and interoperability issues. Prior to his appointment at NDU, Dr. Basile was a Principal Professional Staff member at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) in Laurel, MD. Recent JHU/APL assignments within the Department of Defense include the Senior Advisor to the Director of Systems Engineering at the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Science Advisor to the Commander of U.S. Joint Forces Command, and Science Advisor to the Commander Submarine Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet. While at JHU/APL, he supported strategic weapons systems acquisition, operational test and evaluation, and readiness evaluations for submarine-launched ballistic missile systems. Additionally, he worked for six years as the Program Coordinator and Instructor of graduate studies in manufacturing engineering at The Johns Hopkins University Mechanical Engineering Department in Baltimore, MD. He holds a Bachelor of Science Degree in Mechanical Engineering with high honors (University of Maryland), a Master of Science Degree in Mechanical Engineering (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), and a Doctor of Science Degree in Mechanical Engineering (George Washington University).
Acquisition - Systems Engineering Advanced Manufacturing - Science and Technology Strategy
David Blair is Professor and Chairman of the Department of Economics at the Industrial College. He has been a professor at the George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies, where he directed a series of workshops on political and economic development for very senior leaders of East European and Central Asian countries. He was a Professor of Strategy at the U.S. Air War College, where he developed and was the first director of the Defense Economics program. He was the Avoiding Nuclear War Fellow at Harvard University and Olin Fellow at the Naval War College. He was Research Coordinator of the 1987 President’s Commission on Integrated Long-term Strategy and a senior researcher at Pan Heuristics. He as also a writer of editorials at the Wall Street Journal. He has a Ph.D. in economics from the University of California, Los Angeles and a B.A. in Mathematics from the University of Tennessee.
He directs the Financial Services Industry Study. In this position, he is responsible for maintaining close contact with banks, investment banks, corporate financial officers, regulators and all other aspects of the capital allocation system. In this capacity, he typically meets with over sixty companies and other industry representatives in the US, Europe, and Asia per year. Another principal research area is the role of entrepreneurship in economic development.
His major area of research has been Russia, Central Asia, and the Balkans. He has visited each of these areas many times—most significantly he spent the summer of 2004 visiting and researching more than fifty small and medium-sized businesses in Russia. The point of this research was to determine the current entrepreneurial utilization of technical capabilities that were built up during the Soviet period. He also regularly meets with financial companies in Japan, China, and Korea. During the 1980s, he was a reporter in Central America and also worked on the land reform program in El Salvador.
Linda Brandt is a Professor of Acquisition at the Industrial College of the Armed Forces (ICAF), National Defense University. Prior to joining ICAF, Dr. Brandt served as a senior analyst at the Center for Naval Analyses where she headed up acquisition studies for the Navy Secretariat. She has also worked as a management consultant for the firm of Touche Ross & Company, where her clients included a variety of major defense and non-defense manufacturing companies, and as a Special Assistant to the Chief of Naval Material, Department of the Navy. Before moving to Washington, she was a tenured Associate Professor of Public Policy at California State University, Long Beach. She received her Doctorate in Political Science at the University of Colorado. She has completed the Senior Executive Program at the Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, as well as a variety of executive business and acquisition courses.
Dr. Brandt has written extensively on acquisition issues, participated on a number of Defense Science Board and National Academy of Sciences studies, and testified as an expert witness before Congress. Her work includes articles and studies on acquisition reform, streamlining, technology management and transfer, manufacturing productivity and modernization, and other acquisition and public policy related subjects. She has received numerous awards and honors, to include the American Society for Public Administration's Department of Defense Outstanding Professional of the Year award presented by the Secretary of Defense and the Department of the Navy's Meritorious Civilian Service Award. She was selected as a Fellow of the National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration. Most recently, Dr Brandt was inducted to the rank of "Officier de l'Ordre National du Mérite" by the President of the Republic of France.
Acquisition Policy - Technology Management - Space Policy
Stephen Brent is Chair of the Department of Economics, which teaches the schools core courses in Economics of National Security Strategy (fall) and Industry Analytics (spring). He has taught electives on development, foreign assistance, and expeditionary economics. Prior to joining ICAF, Dr. Brent was a career Foreign Service Officer in the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). At USAID he led the Agency's support for the Millennium Challenge Account; served as Associate Director of USAID/Egypt (where he worked with Egyptian business leaders to improve management and workforce skills); and served in South Africa (leading USAID assistance to democracy during that countrys transition to majority rule). Before joining USAID in 1987, Dr. Brent was a Legislative Assistant to Senator Nancy Landon Kassebaum, Chair of the Africa Subcommittee of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He served six years as a U.S. Naval officer, including duty in Vietnam. He holds a PhD in Public Policy from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, an MS in Operations Analysis from the Naval Postgraduate School, and a BA in Economics from Duke University.
Development Economics - Foreign Assistance Programs - Lessons of Asian Development
Professor Briggs served as ICAF's Federal Aviation Administration Chair from 1998 through 2000, and joined the ICAF faculty in 2001. He earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Journalism and Communications from the University of Illinois in 1968, a Master of Public Administration degree from George Washington University in 1979, and a Master of Science degree in National Resource Management from the Industrial College of the Armed Forces in 1997. He is currently is ABD in his pursuit of a PhD in Public Administration and Policy at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Professor Briggs is the Director of the Industry Studies Program and is an Associate Professor of Acquisition, has served as Course Director for the Acquisition Core Course, as faculty leader of several industry studies, and has taught courses in executive information systems, news media, ethics, and acquisition policy (innovation and change). Professor Briggs was a Viet Nam era Air Force pilot, and has equally divided his public service career since between the Department of Defense and the Department of Transportation, having served as the lead aircraft procurement appropriation analyst for the Secretary of the Navy Comptroller and manager of the FAA's capital budget division, among other acquisition and budget positions. Published articles include, "The 'Seven Percent Provision' and the Railroad Regulatory Reform Act," for the Transportation Research Forum.
Federal Major System Acquisition - Federal, State and Local Capital and Operations Planning, Programming, and Budgeting - Public Administration and Policy - Public and Private Sector Change and Innovation - News Media - Transportation: highways, railroads, aviation (commercial pilot & air traffic control)
Southeast Asia - North America - Europe
Dr. Shannon A. Brown holds a Ph.D. from the University of California at Santa Cruz, where his studies focused on the history of technology and modern world history. Now serving as an associate professor in the department of National Security Studies at the Industrial College of the Armed Forces at Fort Lesley J. McNair, Dr. Brown worked in and around Washington, D.C., as a contract historian and analyst for a number of years. His clients have included the U.S. Air Force, U.S. Treasury, U.S. Census Bureau, and a variety of private organizations and companies, among them the National Electrical Manufacturers Association and the Tokyo Electric Power Company. He is the editor of Providing the Means of War: Historical Perspectives on Defense Acquisition, 1945-2000 (U.S. Army Center of Military History, 2005) and Resourcing Stability Operations and Reconstruction: Past, Present, and Future (Eisenhower National Security Series Industrial College of the Armed Forces, 2006), and several articles on technology and military subjects. Dr. Brown teaches graduate-level history courses on military technology, material culture, and urban infrastructure as a visiting professor of Science and Technology Studies at Virginia Polytechnic and State Universitys NoVa Graduate Center in Falls Church, Virginia.
Joined the staff in March 1996. Mr. Buchanan is the Director of Operations. Mr. Buchanan retired from active duty from the Army in 1994.
Colonel Buckles joined The Eisenhower School in July 2012 as an Assistant Professor of Acquisition. He earned Bachelor of Science degrees in Geography and Cartography from the University of Idaho in 1987, and is a 1999 Distinguished Graduate of Naval Postgraduate School earning a MS in Management (Defense Systems Analysis). He served as a National Security Affairs Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University in 2006. Prior to his arrival at The Eisenhower School, Col. Buckles served as Program Manager for the Marine Corps' Light Armored Vehicles (PM LAV), Marine Corps Systems Command in Warren, Michigan. He was responsible for the upgrade, sustainment, and lifecycle management of the fleet of approximately 900 LAVs. He was also responsible for the procurement of LAVs for Foreign Military Sales (FMS). Previous acquisition assignments include Director, Amphibious Vehicle Test Branch and Deputy Director, Test and Evaluation, Program Management Office for Advanced Amphibious Assault. He is DAWIA Level III Certified in Test and Evaluation; Systems Planning, Research, Development and Engineering; and Program Management. Col. Buckles also has extensive operational experience to include nearly 20 years as an Assault Amphibian Officer; serving as Commanding Officer, 3d Assault Amphibian Battalion, 1st Marine Division from 2003-2005 prior to moving into the Acquisition Career Field.
Mr. Calhoun has over twenty years of experience as an intelligence professional serving in the Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) Directorate of the National Security Agency (NSA) where his primary focus has been on technology development and deployment. Most recently, Mr. Calhoun served as the Technical Director for the SIGINT Directorate Office of Oversight and Compliance. Prior to this assignment, Mr. Calhoun was a member of the SIGINT strategy team where he helped develop and monitor progress on the directorate strategic plan.
Mr. Calhoun has also served in a number of leadership positions at NSA including serving as the Deputy Chief of the Office of Target Reconnaissance and Survey from 2002 to 2006.
Mr. Calhoun holds a Bachelor's Degree in Electrical Engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology and a Master's Degree in Electrical Engineering from Johns Hopkins University. In addition, Mr. Calhoun graduated from the Industrial College of the Armed Forces with a Master's Degree in National Resource Strategy in 2007.
Colonel Cockfield was commissioned in 1988 through the Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps Scholarship Program. He has BS and MS degrees in mathematics from the College of Great Falls and Montana State University, a Master of Military Operational Art and Science from Air University, Maxwell AFB, and a Master of Arts in National Security and Strategic Studies from the Naval War College. Colonel Cockfield has served in several assignments to include cyber officer in fixed-base and contingency commander positions at the flight, squadron, and group levels as well as joint positions on The Joint Staff (CIO Office), United States Transportation Command (J6), Defense Information Systems Agency (C4 Systems & DKO), and Joint Task Force/other deployed positions in support of different wartime operations.
Cyber Operations and Security
Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) Certification
PM Institute Program Management Professional (PMP) Certification
DOD Acquisition CORPS:
Acquisition Level-3 Certified - Program Management
Acquisition Level-3 Certified - Information Systems
Acquisition Level-3 Certified - Acquisition Logistics
Joined the ICAF faculty in 2009. He was previously the Dean of Faculty and Academic Affairs at the National War College. A former Air Force officer, he served staff tours on the Joint Staff, where he worked NATO issues in J-5, and at SHAPE, in Mons, Belgium. His operational assignments included flying tours in various Air Battle Manager positions in both USAF and NATO AWACS units, where he participated in operations and exercises over the US, other NATO countries, the Persian Gulf and Middle East region and the Balkans. While with the NATO AWACS Component, he was the Component Test Director, responsible for all flight testing. He led the combined program acceptance and Initial Operational Test and Evaluation of the NATO-US AWACS Radar System Improvement Program. He also led the NATO operations, logistics, and software team participating in the Integrated Product Team development of the NATO AWACS Mid-Term Modification Program. He was an Olmsted Scholar at the Freie Universitt Berlin and is a graduate of the Air Force Academy, Harvard University's Kennedy School, and Georgetown University (PhD international relations). He is also a graduate of the USAF Fighter Weapons School and the German Armed Forces Staff College (Fhrungsakademie der Bundeswehr). He has published numerous articles and two books:
Behind the Cyberspace Veil: The Hidden Evolution of the Air Force Officer Corps and NATO: A Guide to the Issues.
Currently, Professor of History, Department of National Security Studies, Industrial College of the Armed Forces, National Defense University in Washington D.C. He previously served as Chief Historian and Research Director with the Department of Energy and as a historian with the Army, Air Force, and National Park Service, and with the Cruiser Olympia Association. He has taught at the University of Pennsylvania, Weidner University, the U.S. Army War College, The George Washington University and the American Military University. He is also a past Executive Director of the Society for Military History.
A graduate in history from Rutgers University, he holds M.A. and Ph.D degrees from the University of Pennsylvania. He served in the U.S. Army Reserve 1956-1963. A former officer and trustee of the Society for Military History and past Fellow of the Company of Military Historians, he held an advanced research fellowship from the Naval War College in 1974. He has received the Distinguished Research Award from the Industrial College of the Armed Forces, the Douglas Southall Freeman award from the Military Order of the Stars and Bars, the Fletcher Pratt award from the New York Civil War Round Table, and the Moncado award from the American Military Institute for his writings. He also received the Victor Gondos Memorial Service Award from the Society for Military History.
Among his publications are Benjamin Franklin Tracy: Father of the Modern American Fighting Navy (1973); Symbol, Sword, and Shield: Defending Washington During the Civil War (1975, reprinted 1992); editor, War, Business, and American Society (1977); editor, The New American State Papers: Military Affairs (1979); Gray Steel and Bluewater Navy; The Formative Years of America's Military-Industrial Complex, 1881-1917 (1979); co-author, Combined Operations in War and Peace (1979); editor, War, Business, and World Military Industrial Complexes (1981); Forts Henry and Donelson; Key to the Confederate Heartland (1988); co-author, Mr. Lincoln's Forts: A Guide to the Civil War Defenses of Washington (1988); Jubal Early's Raid on Washington (1989); editor, Case Studies in the Development of Close Air Su port (1991); editor, Case Studies in the Achievement of Air Superiority (1994); editor, Robley D. Evans, A Sailor's Log (1994); Monocacy; The Battle that Saved Washington, (1997); Fort Donelson's Legacy War and Society in Tennessee and Kentucky, 1862-1863 (1997); USS Olympia; Herald of Empire (2000) and several hundred articles, essays and reviews on aspects .of military, naval and other history.
He is currently writing - "'Maryland, My Maryland;' From the Peninsula to the Antietam" and "To Franklin, Nashville and Beyond; The Civil War in Kentucky and Tennessee, 1864-1866."
Dr. Crandall joined the faculty as Professor of Economics at the Industrial College of the Armed Forces in 1994. She is a Cum Laude graduate of Smith College, and holds an MA and Ph.D. in economics from Northwestern University. She was the lead faculty member for 11 years on ICAF's Energy Industry Study. She has taught at Lake Forest College, Wellesley College and MIT, and was a Sloan Faculty Fellow at the MIT Energy Laboratory. She has also served as Adjunct Professor in the School of Foreign Affairs, Security Studies Program, at Georgetown University, teaching the Energy and Security course. She was named an Illinois State Scholar Dissertation Fellow by the AAUW, and earned Certificates in Economics at Carnegie Mellon University and the College of Petroleum Studies at Oxford, UK. She was a senior consultant at Foster Associates, Inc. dealing with energy and antitrust issues, and has testified in Federal District Court. She spent a number of years in the U.S. intelligence community, where she won the Director of Central Intelligence's National Intelligence Medal of Achievement. She has served as a faculty member for the Reserve Components National Security Course. She was appointed to several terms on the Secretary of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Commission, and has served on committees of the U.S. Association for Energy Economics. She was President of the National Capital Area Chapter of the U.S. Association for Energy Economics, the largest and most active local chapter of the national organization, was a member of the Board of Editors of The Energy Journal, and has served several times on the national council of the U.S. Association for Energy Economics. Additionally, she served on a committee of the National Energy Commission. Her book entitled Energy, Economics and Politics in the Caspian Region: Dreams and Realities was published by Praeger in 2006. She is the author of numerous classified papers and briefings on energy, and has published several articles in defense and civilian journals.
Economics - U.S. Energy Issues - International Energy Issues - Antitrust Economics
OPEC - Mercosur Energy Relations - European Natural Gas and Electricity Markets - Caspian Energy and Political developments - NAFTA Energy
Ms. Eileen M. Daniels joined the staff in December 2000 as the executive officer for the Commandant. She graduated from Penn State University with a bachelor's degree in education and maintains current Virginia state teachers certification with endorsement in English. She holds a master's degree in education from the University of Virginia. Her government training includes the Defense Information School's Public Affairs Officer Course (honor graduate), Army Force Management School, and several Army Institute for Professional Development (AIPD) management courses. Ms. Daniels' career path covers teaching positions in both public and private schools and a variety of assignments with the Department of the Army where she held increasingly responsible positions in civilian personnel, public affairs, protocol, and education. Prior to coming to ICAF, she worked as an education program specialist with the Army's school liaison program. Her Department of the Army awards include the Achievement Medal for Civilian Service and the Commander's Award for Civilian Service (bronze laurel leaf cluster).
Tom Dimieri is a native of New York City and attended Fordham College (BA) in Sociology and Brown University (MA, Ph D) in Sociology with a concentration in demography and organizational behavior. His dissertation was a study of reform initiatives in the NYC Police Department supported by a research grant from the Justice Department. He was a member of the faculty at the University of Connecticut (Storrs, CT) and Wellesley College (MA). His academic research focused on ideology and social movements with particular attention to national ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment.
He was a senior research analyst in Wang Labs Advanced Systems Laboratory and conducted research on the impact of IT technology on the organization of work. He also worked at Digital Equipment Corporation as U.S. manager of market research and competitive analysis. He has conducted many independent consulting engagements on product development, market studies, program evaluation, and human resource issues.
He returned to higher education as Director of Institutional Research and Planning at Simmons College (Boston, MA) and later in a similar role at Bryant University (Smithfield, RI), He assumed his new responsibilities at ICAF in January 2010. His role at ICAF is to enhance the evidence base for assessing and improving student learning and institutional effectiveness.
Prior to Managua, Mr. Downes was Director for Human Security for the Department of State, where he coordinated policy for roughly 20 United Nations development agencies located in New York, Nairobi, Geneva and Rome. He also completed assignment to the Office of the Legal Adviser at the State Department where he worked as an attorney assisting in negotiations surrounding the Middle East Peace Process. Mr. Downes held other domestic assignments in the Bureau for East Asian and Pacific Affairs and the Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs (EB). In EB he led a team of negotiators that assisted the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative in negotiating free trade agreements, including CAFTA. He joined the State Department in 1981.
Before joining the State Department, Mr. Downes worked briefly for the U.S. Agency for International Development, as well as for the U.S. Treasury Department's Internal Revenue Service, and with a private volunteer organization in Guatemala.
Mr. Downes received his Bachelor's degree (with honors) in Economics and his Juris Doctorate (with honors) from the University of Texas at Austin. He completed a Masters degree in Public Affairs at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs and a Masters degree in International Relations from the University of Southern California. Mr. Downes also studied law and international economics at the University of Bonn and the Center for International Legal Studies in Salzburg, Austria and Budapest, Hungary. Mr. Downes is a member of the legal bars of the State of Texas, the District of Columbia and the U.S. Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals. He speaks Spanish and German.
Gregory D. Foster is Professor of Political Science at the Industrial College of the Armed Forces, National Defense University, Washington, D.C., where he previously has served as George C. Marshall Professor and J. Carlton Ward Distinguished Professor and Director of Research. He also is Executive Director of the Defense Environmental Forum, a joint venture between the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Installations & Environment) and the President of the National Defense University.
During his tenure at the Industrial College, he has served as director of the Elements of National Power course, the Values, Ethics, and Leadership program, the New Faculty Development program, and the Environment Industry Study group, while also teaching executive-level courses in political science, ethics, mobilization, national power, environmental security, social issues and national security, and strategic brainstorming.
A West Point graduate and former regular army officer, Mr. Foster holds a doctorate in public administration from The George Washington University. He has held adjunct faculty appointments at The Johns Hopkins University and The American University, where he has taught graduate courses in business ethics, management science, and public management. He has published widely in the areas of national security affairs, civil-military relations, ethics, public management, and futures research. His publications include The Strategic Dimension of Military Manpower (Ballinger, 1987) and Paradoxes of Power: The Military Establishment in the Eighties (Indiana University Press, 1983).
Prior to joining the faculty of the Industrial College of the Armed Forces, Mr. Foster served as the first director of the National Defense University's Command and Control Research Program. Before that, he held a number of research management posts in the private sector, including Director of Research and Manager of Washington Operations for the Foreign Policy Research Institute and Director of the Center for Security and Policy Studies, Science Applications, Inc.
Public Administration - Organizational Theory and Behavior - Civil-Military Relations - Ethics - Environmental Security - Mobilization - Emergency Management - Strategy - Training/Education
Europe - Asia-Pacific
Mark Foulon is Professor of Industry and Business at the National Defense Universitys Industrial College of the Armed Forces (ICAF). At ICAF, he leads the Business Strategy Program and serves on the Economics faculty.
Prior to joining the ICAF faculty, Foulon was a member of the Senior Executive Service in the United States Department of Commerce. At Commerce, Foulon was Deputy Undersecretary for Industry and Security from 20032006 and Acting Under Secretary of Industry and Security from 20062007. He also served on detail to the Department of the Treasury as Chief of Staff for International Affairs.
Foulon came to the Commerce Department from the Department of State, where he was a member of the Policy Planning Staff and a senior speechwriter to the Secretary of State. A former Foreign Service Officer with experience in the Middle East and Europe, Foulon also served as an aide to U.S. Senator Bill Bradley focusing on trade and national security.
Foulon also brings to his position business experience gained as a consultant for McKinsey & Co. and as a principal in several high-technology start-up businesses.
A native of Spokane, Washington, Foulon is a graduate of Yale and Oxford University, where he was a Rhodes Scholar.
Business (General) - Government/Industry Relations - Trade and National Security
Middle East/Persian Gulf - Foulon also led successful negotiations with the Chinese Ministry of Commerce
He is a senior pilot and regional affairs strategist with more than 2,400 flying hours in DHC-6, C-130E, MC-130H, and C-145 aircraft. Lt Col Geiser's professional military education includes Squadron Officer School, Air Command and Staff College, and Air War College. He holds a Bachelor of Science Degree in Civil Engineering from the United States Air Force Academy, a Master of Political Science Degree from Oxford University, and a Master's Degree in Business Administration from the Brazilian Federal University. His military decorations include the Airman's Medal, Defense Meritorious Service Medal, Joint Service Achievement Medal, Meritorious Service Medal, Air Medal, Air Force Commendation Medal, and the Brazilian Santos Dumont Medal of Merit.
Prior to joining USAID in 1986, Mr. Gordon worked for 6 years as a trial lawyer in Cleveland, Ohio, where he became partner in Rippner Schwartz & Carlin. He is a Member of the Bar in the District of Columbia, Ohio, the U.S. Supreme Court, the 6th Federal Circuit Court of Appeals, and the U.S. District Court (N.D. Ohio). He previously taught international law at the University of Khartoum (Sudan) and trial practice at Cleveland State University Law School.
Mr. Gordon received his B.A. in History from Ohio State University, M.A. in Far East Asian Studies from the University of London (M.A thesis on Sino-Japanese Fishery Disputes), and his J.D. cum laude from Cleveland State University. He also studied intensive Chinese at Cambridge University, and completed training courses at the Foreign Service Institute and the Federal Executive Institute. He has traveled extensively in Asia, Africa and Europe, and has published articles on Sudanese law in the International Lawyer (ABA, Chicago) and the Journal of African Law (London).
Foreign Affairs - Democracy-Governance - Rule of Law - Economic Development - Federal Procurement
China - Southeast Asia - South Asia - Central Asia - Sub-Saharan Africa
Mr. Hartle is a senior US government officer with the Defense Intelligence Agency. As a retired US Air Force senior officer, has over 27-years experiences as an intelligence analyst, strategic planner, intelligence operations commander, and training director. In addition to tours-of-duty in Korea, Japan, United Kingdom, Turkey, Australia, and Germany; he served in multiple positions in the United States to include the Chief of Intelligence for the US Joint Staff's National Airborne Operations Center directly supporting the President of the United States. He has taught leadership, management, national security, and other graduate-level courses at the US Air Force Air War College, Royal Australian Air Force Command and Staff College, and National Defense Intelligence College. Currently, he teaches national security, macroeconomics, industry analytics, and international competitive business environment; and is the DIA Chair and NIU Liaison at The Eisenhower School, National Defense University.
His previous key leadership assignments include Medical Platoon Leader, Medical Company Commander, Forward Support Battalion/Brigade Support Battalion Commander, Commander, US Army Garrison, Walter Reed Army Medical Center and most recently as Commander, SHAPE Healthcare Facility and NATO Army Health Clinic.
His staff assignments include Battalion Logistics Officer, Chief, Force Management Branch, Medical Plans Officer, Medical Operations Officer, Chief, Division Medical Operations Center and Deputy Branch Chief, Health Service Support Division, The Joint Staff. Additionally he has served as an instructor at the Army Medical Department Center and School.
Prior to working at NDU, John served for 31 years as a Foreign Service Officer in the Department of State, retiring at the rank of Career-Minister. In his last four years at the State Department, he served as the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization. In that capacity, John led the development of U.S. Government civilian capacity to promote the stabilization and reconstruction of societies in transition from conflict or civil strife, and to provide support to countries at risk of instability. He oversaw the establishment of the Civilian Response Corps of the United States. The Corps is the U.S. civilian rapid response force for reconstruction and stabilization operations overseas.
In May 2003, John was appointed the U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine. During his tenure, he worked to enhance U.S-Ukrainian relations, to help ensure the conduct of a fair Ukrainian presidential election, and to prevent violence during the Orange Revolution. Prior to that, John was the U.S. Ambassador to Uzbekistan, where he played a critical role in the establishment of an American base to help conduct Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. He also promoted improved U.S.-Uzbek relations, in part by encouraging the government in Tashkent to improve its human rights record.
Career Achievement Award, and the State Department's Distinguished Honor Award. John received a Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service from Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service, Phi Beta Kappa, and a Master of Law and Diplomacy, with Distinction, from the Fletcher School. He also attended the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies Bologna Center.
Col Jackson enlisted in the Marine Corps from New Jersey in the Spring of 1982 after attending Cornell University. After Signals Intelligence training at Corry Station, Florida he was assigned to Company I, Marine Support Battalion, Naval Security Group Activity, Adak, Alaska. Accepted for the Enlisted Commissioning Education Program, he attended Officer Candidates School, The Basic School (TBS), and the Infantry Officers Course during 1986.
Upon completion of the Army's Command and General Staff College in 2001, Col Jackson was serving as the Senior Advisor to the 1st Brigade, Royal Saudi Marine Corps and Eastern Fleet, Jubail, Saudi Arabia when 9/11 occurred.
Col Jackson was next assigned to the Navy Warfare Development Command in Newport, Rhode Island as an Action Officer in the Doctrine Department. During this tour he also served as an Individual Augment at Camp Blue Diamond, as the Director, and then Assistant Director of the Iraqi Security Force Cell, G-3, 1st Marine Division.
Thereafter, he served as the Assistant Chief of Staff, United States Africa Command, Stuttgart, Germany followed by a tour as the Commanding Officer, Officer Candidates School in Quantico, Virginia. He recently completed a 2-year tour as Chief of Staff for Marine Forces Central Command (Forward) deployed to Bahrain in the Persian Gulf.
CAPT Johns' shore assignments include serving as Fleet Replacement Squadron instructor and VP assistant training officer to Commander Patrol and Reconnaissance Group. He graduated from National War College in 2007.
CAPT Johns' major staff assignments include the Joint Staff, Strategic Plans and Policy (J5) Directorate, where he served as a Strategic Planner and Deputy Division Chief in the Iraq and Middle East Regional Divisions from 2007 - 2010. He was the Joint Staff representative on the interagency team charged with negotiating the Security Agreement, also known as the Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA), between the United States and Iraq.
CAPT Johns served on the Navy staff (OPNAV) from 2010 - May 2013 as the Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Branch Head for the Navy's Assessment (N81) and Warfare Integration (N00X) Divisions where he was responsible for assessment, oversight, and integration of ASW capability investments within national, DoD, and Navy strategy through Future Years Defense Planning.
Professor King has extensive line and staff experience in army and joint logistics operations, United Nations peacekeeping, budget and finance, inter-agency budget coordination at the national level, information systems, and officer education. He was directly involved in most of the Canadian Forces' strategic financial management and cost reduction efforts following the collapse of the Soviet Union and was awarded the Deputy-Minister of Defence of Canada Commendation for his work. In 1990, he was appointed as Comptroller of the Army and received the Commander of the Army Commendation for his work on cost reduction and development of the first Army-wide computer network that was subsequently replicated throughout the Canadian Forces. He also served on the faculty of Canada�s National Defence College and led a team in the study of Officer Professional Development in the Canadian Forces. He was assigned to the Industrial College of the Armed Forces (ICAF) in 1995. He joined the civilian faculty in 2001.
At the Eisenhower School, he has been active in the design of the economics curriculum and the Industry Studies Program. He has worked in the Materials, Biotech, Environment, Weapons and Information and Communications Technology Industry Studies, and the Canada and Mexico RSS programs. His current research interest is in microeconomic efficiency and performance management in the federal government.
Professor King is a graduate of the Canadian Military Staff Colleges in Kingston (Army) and Toronto (Joint), the Industrial College of the Armed Forces, and holds a diploma from the National Defence College of Canada. He holds a Bachelor of Commerce (Bus. Admin.), a Master of Public Administration (George Washington University), is currently ABD at Virginia Tech and is a professionally qualified management accountant. He maintains membership in the CATO Institute, the National Association of Business Economists, the National Economics Club, and the American Society of Public Administration.
Prior to joining DHS, Dr. King taught explosives for the US Department of Justice and conducted vulnerability assessments and developed emergency response plans for the Pentagon Reservation, US House of Representatives, US Capitol Police Board, and critical infrastructure across the nation. His prior experience includes working as a local law enforcement officer and he also has over 20 years of experience as a firefighter and EMT-Paramedic. He still remains active as a volunteer fire officer and nationally registered EMT-Paramedic. In addition to numerous firefighting, emergency medical services, law enforcement, technical rescue, and hazardous materials related certifications; Mr. King is board certified in security management as a Certified Protection Professional (CPP), certified in homeland security, level five (CHS-V), Certified Scrum Master in agile project management, a certified GIS Professional (GISP), and is a Project Management Professional (PMP). Steve is currently the Chair of the American Board for Certification in Infrastructure Protection.
Steve holds a Doctor of Science in Information Systems and Communication, a Master of Science in Biodefense, a Master of Business Administration, and an undergraduate degree in Emergency Services Administration. His doctoral dissertation examined the influence of geographic information systems (GIS) on decision making during the Federal response to a natural disaster. He has been published in several peer reviewed academic journals and popular magazines. He completed the Naval Postgraduate School's Homeland Security Executive Leaders’ program, the Federal Executive Institute's flagship course, Leadership for a Democratic Society, and the Senior Executive Fellows program at Harvard University.
Mr. Koprucu is currently the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Chair at the Industrial College of the Armed Forces (ICAF). He joined DHS in 2004 after retiring from service in the United States Navy as a Surface Warfare Officer (Nuclear). He is a graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy (B.S., 1984), the Air Force Command and Staff College and ICAF (M.S., 2007). He is currently conducting his doctorate work at Georgetown University.
During his time at the Industrial College, Mr. Koprucu has served as Deputy Director, Department of National Security Studies (DNSS); Director, Regional Security Studies (RSS) program; and Faculty Lead, Information and Communications Technology (ICT) industry study, while also teaching executive-level courses in homeland security and national security studies. Mr. Koprucu also instituted and led ICAFs Language and Culture program which has become an integral part of the colleges curriculum. He has developed and led field studies groups to El Paso, TX over many years to examine the interagency processes and challenges inherent in border security. He has also led ICT industry study groups to visit government and business organizations in China, Vietnam, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Mr. Koprucu was awarded the 2010 ICAF Outstanding Achievement in Service Award for his leadership and contributions in a variety of academic pursuits.
Mr. Koprucu previously served in the DHS Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection (IAIP) Directorate and the Preparedness Directorate. He acted as Director, Plans and Policy in Preparedness during the post-Hurricane Katrina environment and assisted in the subsequent reorganization efforts of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). He was concurrently the Director of IT Business Planning in the National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD). His experience at DHS encompasses the areas of Cybersecurity, Emergency Preparedness, Infrastructure Protection, and Acquisition.
On active duty, Mr. Koprucu served as the Commanding Officer, Naval Computer and Telecommunications Station, Washington, DC. He led the organization through a series of technology introductions, most notably the initial implementation of the Navy Marine Corps Intranet (NMCI). He also helped pioneer Navy efforts and processes for change management in transitioning to an outsourced service model. He concurrently served as the Chief Information Officer (CIO) for Naval District Washington where he was assigned additional duty to the Department of the Navy CIO office to conduct strategic planning for Navy-wide enterprise architecture. His command won the US Atlantic Fleet 2003 Personnel Retention Award in recognition of superior command climate and excellent personnel morale. He has been a guest speaker at the National Defense University (NDU) in areas involving government outsourced IT solutions and Joint C4 issues. He has completed the CIO Certificate program and Information Assurance certification at the Information Resource Management College (IRMC).
Sea duty assignments include USS VICKSBURG (CG 69), USS LEYTE GULF (CG 55), USS BUCHANAN (DDG 14) and USS NIMITZ (CVN 68). He has made multiple deployments to the Middle East, Mediterranean and Western Pacific areas of operation and has extensive experience in both Joint and NATO military operations. He is qualified as a naval nuclear engineer and master training specialist.
Other shore duty assignments include the Chief of Naval Operations staff (OPNAV) in the Information Warfare Division (N64), founding member of the Navy Operations Group (DEEP BLUE) responsible for strategic operational planning and the Office of the Secretary of the Navy, Office of Program Appraisal. He assisted in development of the Navy portions of both the 1997 and 2001 Quadrennial Defense Reviews (QDR).
Homeland Security Interagency Coordination Cross Cultural Awareness - US Foreign Policy Border Security and Narco-violence Information and Communications Technology
Turkey Middle East China - Canada
Dr. Steven Philip Kramer has been Professor of Grand Strategy at the Industrial College of the Armed Forces, National Defense University in Washington, D.C. since 1992. He was also Policy Advisor to the Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs from 1996-2002 where he focused on long-term issues and on issues related to France. Dr. Kramer has taught Contemporary European history and government at the University of New Mexico and Georgetown University, served as a Council of Foreign Relations Fellow in the U.S. Department of State, directed the Face to Face program of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, was the John J. McCloy Distinguished Fellow in Residence at the American Institute for Contemporary German Studies and was a Fellow at the Institute for the Study of Diplomacy at Georgetown. He has written widely on European politics and culture. His most recent books are Does France still Count: The French Role in the New Europe, Praeger/CSIS, 1994 and Trouble in Paradise, Europe in the 21st Century, NDU Press 1996, coauthored with Professor Irene Kyriakopoulos. He has also written Socialism in Western Europe: The Experience of a Generation and a biography of the cineaste Abel Gance. Professor Kramer received his B.A. in History from Brandeis University and his Ph.D. from Princeton University.
Political History - Government - Intellectual and Cultural History
Europe with specialization in France - Latin America
He previously commanded the 2nd Space Operations Squadron where he was responsible for the operations and maintenance of the Global Positioning System, and followed as Deputy Commander, 50th Operations Group. His additional operational assignments include Squadron Operations Officer; Chief, Group Standardization & Evaluation; Crew Commander and Satellite Vehicle Operator. He has also served as a logistics plans officer and an acquisition logistics officer. He served in staff assignments at Headquarters United States Air Force (A8), Headquarters North American Aerospace Defense Command and United States Space Command (J4), and most recently served as the Executive Officer to the Commander, Air Force Space Command.
Space Operations - Leadership and Management
Mr. Kurtz is currently pursuing a doctorate degree from The George Washington University (GWU) where his research interests are in storytelling and identity formation. He holds a Masters degree from The Marine Corps War College in Strategic Studies and a Masters degree in Criminal Justice from Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU). His undergraduate degree in Business Administration is from the University of Vermont (UVM).
Dr. Irene Kyriakopoulos is Professor of Economics, Department of Economics, Industrial College of the Armed Forces, National Defense University, Washington, D.C. She joined the faculty there in 1983 and served as Chair, Department of Economics, from 2000-2004. While on sabbatical leave in 2004-2005, she earned two honorary appointments as Senior Fellow, Atlantic Council of the United States, and Public Policy Scholar, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Dr. Kyriakopoulos teaches economics of strategy and resources management, and political economy of the European Union. Professor Kyriakopoulos' teaching experience and interests include macroeconomics, industrial economics with emphasis on the financial services sector, economics of defense and European economic integration. Prior to her appointment on the ICAF faculty, she served as Research Associate on the staff of The Brookings Institution, as Faculty Fellow at the U.S. Office of Personnel Management and as Associate Professor of Economics at The George Washington University. Dr. Kyriakopoulos has lectured, consulted and collaborated with academic institutions and government organizations and agencies, including Oxford Economics, the National War College, Defense Leadership Management Program, Center for Naval Analyses, the U.S. State Department Foreign Affairs Training Center, the Center for Strategic and International Studies and the American Institute of Contemporary German Studies. Her research activities are in the areas of European economic integration and economics of international security. Recent publications of hers include “After Expansion: Europe in Dis-Union?” Mediterranean Quarterly, Winter 2004; and Economic Notes, an edited collection of Readings in the Economics of Strategy and Resources Management (National Defense University, 2003). She has authored articles and papers on economic aspects of international security and was co-author of Trouble in Paradise? Europe in the 21st Century, National Defense University Press, 1996 (with S. Kramer). Professor Kyriakopoulos earned her Bachelor of Science in Economics from the University of Maryland, and her Master’s and Ph.D degrees, also in Economics, from The George Washington University.
Economics of National Security Strategy - Economics of National Resource Strategy - Economics of Human Resources - Political Economy of the European Union
European Union - Greece - Southeastern Europ
Andrew Leith has been a member of the Eisenhower School faculty since July 2005 where he teaches economics and leads one of the Colleges capstone Industry Study programs focusing on stabilization and reconstruction. Relevant experience includes operational deployments with the Australian Army as a United Nations Military Observer on the Iran-Iraq Cease Fire Line in 1989 and as a Military Liaison Officer on the Headquarters of the International Force in East Timor in 1999. From 2000 to 2002 Andrew Leith was employed by the United Nations as the civilian Deputy Head of the Division of Trade and Investment for the Transitional Administration in East Timor and from July 2010 to June 2011 resided in the Solomon Islands where he conducted research on behalf of the Australian Civil-Military Centre focusing on lessons learned by the Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands.
Reconstruction & Stabilization in Post Conflict Countries - Private Sector Development in Fragile and Conflict Affected States.
South Pacific (Australia / Timor Leste / Solomon Islands)
Logistics - Supply Chain Management � Industry Analytics - Business Administration - Agribusiness - Acquisition Management - Public Administration
Conflict and Development - Democracy - Human Rights and Governance - Leadership and Organizational Development
Latin America - Africa.
Dr. Sorin Lungu is an Associate Professor the Department of Military Strategy and Logistics with the Eisenhower School (NDU). He developed and leads (since Fall 2010) the Long-Term Strategy electives concentration (where he teaches courses in net assessment, strategic planning, and directs research). During 2010-2012 he was also the faculty lead for the Aircraft Industry Study program. Before joining NDU in October 2006, he previously taught at the U.S. Air War College in the Department of Joint Military Operations (July 2005-October 2006). A naturalized U.S. citizen, he earned his PhD in International Affairs from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University (1999-2005) with a dissertation titled "European Defense Market Integration: The Aerospace Sector in 1987-1999." He holds an MA in National Security Affairs (Western Europe concentration) from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School at Monterey (1997-98) and a BS/MS in Mathematics from the University of Bucharest, Romania (1987-92). He attended the Vienna-based Austrian Diplomatic Academy (1994-95) and was awarded research fellowships by the WEU Security Studies Institute (Paris, France - 2001) and the Konrad Adenauer Foundation (Germany, 2001-02). He was a fellow in MIT's Seminar XXI program (September 2007 -- May 2008). Since February 2006 he is a Member of the London-based International Institute for Strategic Studies. His articles appeared in The RUSI Journal, Comparative Strategy, Defense and Security Analysis, American Diplomacy, and Strategic Insights. In 1992-94 he was broker at the Romanian Commodities Exchange (Bucharest), and then (1994-98) a member of the Romanian diplomatic corps. During AY 12-13 he is on sabbatical as a William C. Foster Fellow with the Department of State (PM/RSAT office).
Long-Term Competition in International Affairs - Defense and Aerospace Industry Analysis - Defense Industry and Business Government Relations (Western Europe and Asia-Pacific) - Power Projection and its Resourcing - Technology Diffusion and Military Power - Economic Intelligence in Support of Defense Planning - Cross-disciplinary Analytical Frameworks (International affairs, Technology and Business Strategy)
Col Mahan received her commission from the United States Air Force Academy in 1986. She holds a Master of Science and PhD degrees in Operations Research from the Air Force Institute of Technology.
Colonel Doug McCarthy was commissioned as an army Logistics Officer in 1983 on graduation from the Royal Military College of Canada, and was awarded an Honours BA in Economics & Commerce as well as the Governor Generals Silver Medal for academic distinction. He was a Distinguished Graduate on the year-long joint Canadian Forces Command and Staff Course in 2000, received a Master of Defence Studies degree in Decision Modeling from the Royal Military College in 2004, and was a Distinguished Graduate and awarded a Master of Science degree in National Resource Strategy from the Industrial College of the Armed Forces in 2009. He was promoted to his current rank in 2006 and joined the ICAF faculty in 2009, where he teaches Economics, Regional Security Studies Canada and Private Sector Support to Operations Industry Studies.
Colonel McCarthy has served the majority of his career in army field units and has commanded at the platoon, company and battalion level. He considers himself extremely privileged to have served as the Commanding Officer of 2 General Support Battalion, Petawawa, from 2004-2006, during which time his battalion force-generated and trained three National Support Elements for deployment to Afghanistan. In the latter part of his career he has served in several strategic and operational level joint staff positions within National Defence Headquarters, Canadian Expeditionary Force Command and Canadian Operational Support Command, all focussed on planning for and oversight to Canadian Forces expeditionary operations.
Colonel McCarthy has deployed on three overseas operations: Cyprus (UNFICYP), the 1991/92 Persian Gulf War (with 1 (UK) Armoured Division), and Bosnia (NATO SFOR). He deployed on Canadian domestic operations in support of the Winnipeg flood relief in 1997 and with 1(UK) Armoured Division on Exercise SAIF SAREEA II, a three month combined and joint desert exercise in the Oman in 2001. He has served twice on two-year exchange officer postings with the British Army in northern Germany.
Dr. McGuire is a Professor of Behavioral Science in the Strategic Leadership Department. He teaches the core course Strategic Leadership and an elective course entitled, Creative, Critical and Reflective Thinking. Additionally, he serves as the lead faculty member on the Education Industry Study which examines the role of the American education system at all levels in supporting U.S. national security interests (includes examining corporate education and school to work transition programs). Mark also supervises the annual ICAF New Faculty Development Program as well as the ICAF Continuing Education Program. Born in White Plains, New York, Mark graduated from the United States Military Academy (USMA) in 1977 and commissioned in the Field Artillery. Served in the Army as a Field Artilleryman for 30 years. Earned a Masters in Industrial Organization at the University of Washington and his doctorate degree in Higher Education Administration at The George Washington University.
Worked with joint and coalition forces
Interested in leadership and senior level leader development
Served 1 tour in Germany
Served 2 tours in the Republic of Korea
Captain John Meier joined the faculty of the Industrial College of the Armed Forces in June 2009 as an Assistant Professor of Acquisition and assumed responsibilities as the Associate Dean of Faculty and Academic Programs in June 2011. In addition to teaching the Acquisition core curriculum and Senior Acquisition Course (SAC) electives, he has led the Electronics Industry Study.
An active duty Navy Supply Corps Officer with over 25 years of commissioned service, he holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Business Administration from Michigan Technological University (1986), a Master of Science in Management from the Naval Postgraduate School (1994) and a Master of Science degree in National Resource Strategy from the Industrial College of the Armed Forces (2003). He is also a graduate of the Defense Acquisition Universitys Senior Acquisition Course; the Executive Education Training Program at the Kenan-Flagler Business School, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; and the U.S. Army's Command and General Staff College. CAPT Meier is a member of the Department of the Navy Acquisition Professional Community, and holds the Joint Qualified Officer (JQO), Submarine Supply Corps Officer and Surface Warfare Supply Corps Officer qualifications.
CAPT Meier has served in a variety of key leadership positions afloat and ashore. At sea, he served as the Supply Officer, USS James Madison (SSBN 627), and as the Assistant Officer in Charge and Stock Control Officer, USNS Concord (T-AFS 5). His shore duty assignments include: Integrated Logistics Support Management Specialist, Logistics Management Division, Naval Air Systems Command; Transportation Policy Officer, Plans and Policy Directorate (J5), United States Transportation Command; Supply Officer, Naval Support Activity, Bahrain; Staff Officer, Mobility Division, Logistics Directorate (J4), Joint Staff; and Director, Logistics Operations (N3), Naval Operational Logistics Support Center.
Leadership and Management Operational Logistics Logistics Planning and Joint logistics
Professor Mark Montroll joined the faculty in July 1998. He holds a bachelors degree in Engineering and Applied Sciences from the University of Rochester, a master’s degree in Electrical Engineering and a doctor of philosophy degree in Acoustics from the Catholic University of America. He teaches courses in acquisition, shipbuilding industry analysis, Research and Technology Policy and the Emerging and Breakthrough Technologies. His major areas of academic interest include the management and deployment of innovation and creativity, and the affects of the federal policy on research and technology development. Since 2000 he has been the director of the exchange program between ICAF and the Center for Higher Education in Armaments (CHEAr), a senior service school of the French Acquisition service (DGA) in Paris. His publications include the chapter on Maintaining the Technological Lead in the book “Transforming America’s Military, published by the NDU Press.
Defense acquisition - Research and Technology Policy - Shipbuilding Industrial base analysis - Management of Innovation and Creativity - Transatlantic Cooperation
Kelly Morris joined ICAF in 2008 as the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Chairperson. She is a faculty member in the Acquisition Department, teaching the core Acquisition course, as well as the Senior Acquisition Course electives and Supply Chain Management electives. Prior to coming to ICAF, she was responsible for leading DLAs partnership efforts and liaison support to Unified Combatant Commanders in order to influence and improve collaborative, integrated adaptive planning capabilities and logistics sustainment. She was also responsible for leading the Distribution Process Owner engagement and governance process with USTRANSCOM.
From August 2007 February, 2008, Ms. Morris served as the Deputy Executive Director for the DLA HQs Logistics Analysis and Business Integration Office in DLA Headquarters, responsible for matters related to logistics analysis, readiness, and performance assessment, as well as logistics operational resource requirements management, business planning and administration. She oversaw the administration and centralized coordination and management of internal and external logistics partnerships and issues which crossed multiple business areas and multiple agencies such as US Transportation Command (TRANSCOM) and General Services Administration.
Following her graduation from the Industrial College of the Armed Forces in June 2002, Ms. Morris was integrally involved in the strategy, development, implementation and execution of the Customer Relationship Management (CRM) program for DLA. She led the integration of Customer Outreach, Opportunity and Account Management, Service and Analytics processes and managed the user adoption and execution of the processes using SAP CRM for the multi-billion dollar DoD organization.
From September 1998 until August 2001, Ms. Morris was Director, Direct Delivery Fuels at the Defense Energy Support Center, where she led a $544.5 million direct vendor delivery contracting program for ground fuel, into-plane and ship bunkers products. She led the development of a variety of electronic commerce tools including the DoD Fleet Card, AIR Card and Paperless Ordering & Receipt Transaction Screens (PORTS), a web enabled ordering and receipts system.
Prior to joining Direct Delivery Fuels, Ms. Morris was a Contracting Officer and helped to lead the dynamic, award winning DoD Natural Gas Program. As of her departure in 1998, the Gas Program had produced over $175 million in cost avoidance to Federal Government installations since its inception in 1990. In addition to the significant cost avoidance, the DoD Natural Gas Program was recognized by winning the DoD Productivity Award (1994), the DoD Superior Management Award (1995), the David Packard Excellence Award (1996) and the DLA Scissors Award (1997).
Ms. Morris has a Masters Degree in National Resource Strategies from the Industrial College of the Armed Forces, as well as a Bachelors Degree in Biological Sciences and German from the University of Northern Colorado. Ms. Morris is Level III certified in Contracting under the Defense Acquisition Workforce Improvement Act (DAWIA) and is a member of the Defense Acquisition Corp.
Logistics - Contracting/Procurement Project Management - Energy Supply Chain Management - Leadership Distribution Process Owner - General Business Metrics/Balanced Scorecard
Kenneth B. Moss is currently Chairman of the Department of National Security Studies. Between May 2000 and December 2004 he was Associate Dean for Academic Programs. From March 2005 to March 2006 he was a visiting scholar at The Center for Congress at Indiana University (Bloomington, Indiana) and the German Institute for International and Security (Berlin), during which he conducted research and began writing a forthcoming book titled "Waging Imperfect War: The Constitution and Modern Warfare." He teaches courses in national seucrity studies and on American and foreign processes of maintaining government control over the use of military force. He worked in the Electronics Industry Study as its director or as supporting faculty between 1994-2004 and also directed the course on Values Ethiucs and Leadership between 1999-2004.
He holds an M.A. (1973) and Ph.D. (1978) in history from the University of Minnesota, where he concentrated on American foreign policy, and a B.A. in history and German from Indiana University (1971). He has taught courses in U.S. diplomatic history at the Universities of Minnesota, Nebraska, and Alabama in Huntsville. In spring 1997 he was a visiting professor at the University of Goettingen in Germany, where he taught lecture and seminar courses on Congress and U.S. foreign policy. He has lectured on this same subject before the European Area Studies program at the Foreign Service Institute since 1988 and in a variety of settings throughout Europe. In 1996, the Institute designated him as a distinguished lecturer. Dr. Moss was born in Indianapolis, Indiana.
Prior to coming to the Industrial College in 1994, Professor Moss was a member of the staff of the House Subcommittee on Europe and the Middle East (1982-1987) chaired by Representative Lee H. Hamilton, a senior research associate at the Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars (1987-89), and manager for policy analysis for the U.S. government affairs office of Siemens (1990-1994), a large German industrial electronics corporation. He was also a registered lobbyist for Siemens. He has published on a variety of subjects, including an edited book on new weapons technologies, Technology and the Future Strategic Environment (Wilson Center Press, 1991), and has published Congressional reports, articles, book chapters, and opinion pieces on U.S. relations with NATO and the European Union, Congress, sanctions in foreign policy, U.S.- German relations, U.S. policy in the Mediterranean, as well as on the U.S. electronics industry.
Congress, Foreign Policy, and War Powers - Government-Industry relations - History of U.S. Foreign Relations
Europe--especially Germany or the Mediterranean
Dr. Needham joined the faculty of the Industrial College of the Armed Forces in July 1996. He holds a Ph.D. in Business Logistics Management from the University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland. His publications include articles related to transportation and inventory tradeoff decisions along with examination of the Civil Reserve Air Fleet. Dr. Needham's professional experience includes over 23 years of active duty service with the U.S. Air Force in a variety of logistics positions at all levels. He also has experience as a logistics consultant working of DOD related logistics studies. His awards include the Defense Meritorious Service Medal, the Air Force Meritorious Service Medal, and the Air Force Commendation Medal. He is a graduate of the Air War College.Functional Expertise:
Originally from Everett, Washington, Denny entered active duty in the Army in 1994. He has served more than 19 years in the United States Army, primarily as an armor officer and Army strategist in a host of tactical, operational, academic and strategic level leadership assignments. He most recently served in the National Security Division, Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President overseeing more than $10 billion in discretionary outlays and as the Executive Director of the Performance Improvement Council responsible for implementing the President's approach to improving interagency performance and accountability. Prior to that, Denny was a strategist for the last three Chiefs of Staff of the Army. He has also served on the faculty at both the United States Military Academy and the US Army Command and General Staff College. He has served combat tours in Afghanistan and Iraq. Denny is a graduate of the West Point and holds a PhD in psychology from Duke University.
Colonel Perkuchin received his commission from the United States Military Academy in 1986. He holds a Master of Arts in Organizational Administration from the George Washington University and received his Master of Science in National Resource Strategy from NDU-ICAF in 2009.Regional Expertise:
CAPT Pregmon was designated as a Naval Flight Officer in 1991 and served operationally as a P-3C Mission Commander, Fleet Replacement Squadron Instructor and Department Head during multiple squadron assignments. His P-3C operational experience culminated as the Commanding Officer of Patrol Squadron FIVE, NAS Jacksonville, Florida. CAPT Pregmon's shore assignments include serving as the Special Assistant to the Commander, U.S. SIXTH Fleet, Gaeta, Italy and as the Broad Area Maritime (BAMS) Unmanned Aerial System Requirements Officer serving for the Director of Naval Aviation Programs, Staff of the Chief of Naval Operations. Prior to his arrival at The Eisenhower School, CAPT Pregmon served as the Chief, Future Operations for the United States Southern Command, Doral, Florida.
Government Contract Law - Fiscal Law - Acquisition Policy - International Law - Ethics - Law of Armed Conflict - Conflicts of Law
Europe - Asia
Prior to joining NDU in September 2010, Professor Rostow served for more than 4 years as University Counsel and Vice Chancellor for Legal Affairs and tenured full professor at the State University of New York. His public service positions include: General Counsel and Senior Policy Adviser to the U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations, 2001-05; Charles H. Stockton Chair in International Law, U.S. Naval War College, 2001; Staff Director, Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, 1999-2000; Counsel and Deputy Staff Director to the House Select Committee on Military/Commercial Concerns with the People's Republic of China, 1998-99; Special Assistant to Presidents Reagan and George H.W. Bush for National Security Affairs and Legal Adviser to the National Security Council under Colin Powell and Brent Scowcroft, 1987-93; and Special Assistant to the Legal Adviser, U.S. Department of State, 1985-1987.
Professor Rostow has taught at the University of Tulsa College of Law and the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy as well as the Naval War College. He earned his B.A., summa cum laude, from Yale in 1972, and his Ph.D. in history and J.D., also from Yale. His publications are in the fields of diplomatic history, international law, and issues of U.S. national security and foreign policy.
Between his graduate degrees, Dr. Russo served as a KC-135 navigator for the US Air Force. From 1998 to 2001, Dr. Russo provided economic analysis to the Federal Aviation Administration. His most notable projects included writing a section of the Secretary of Transportation's Airport Competition Study, calculating the costs for commercial aviation to meet the requirements of the Kyoto Protocol under a wide range of potential conditions, and representing the United States as part of the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection process. From 2001 to 2006, Dr. Russo analyzed regulations proposed by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. These regulations spanned most aspects of operations and equipment for the trucking and intercity busing industries.
Dr. Russo's teaching experience ranges from community colleges to public and private universities in North Dakota, Pennsylvania, New York, and Washington, DC. He has taught microeconomics, macroeconomics, corporate finance, law and economics, and game theory.
Game Theory - Public Sector Economics - Regulation - Industrial Organization - Elections - Mathematical Modeling
Previous assignments include NGA Task Force Afghanistan Country Lead, ISAF Headquarters, Kabul, Afghanistan; the International (Green) Zone Site Lead and the NGA Senior Liaison Officer to the U.S Embassy, Baghdad, Iraq; Deputy Director of the Skope Cell, NGA Office of Counterterrorism; NGA Liaison Officer to the Strategic Operations Center, Multi-National Force, U.S. Embassy, Baghdad, Iraq; Chief of the Mission Deployment Office, NGA New Campus East; Deputy Director of the NGA Support Team to the Defense Intelligence Agency; Chief of the NGA Doctrine Office; Chief of the NGA Marine Corps Customer Support Team and Liaison Officer to Headquarters, USMC.
Mr. Savoie is a graduate of the College of William and Mary and holds master's degrees from Auburn University and the National Defense University, Industrial College of the Armed Forces. He is also a graduate of the Air War College and the Defense Leadership and Management Program.
Colonel Schwab is a 1986 Distinguished Graduate of the Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps from the University of Portland (Oregon) where he earned a Bachelor of Science Degree in Engineering Management. He is a navigator with more than 2,500 hours in C-130 and C-141 aircraft. His operational assignments took him to all US States and to more than 40 countries from the Middle East, Europe, North Africa, North and Central America, as well as the Pacific rim from Alaska to New Zealand. He flew combat and combat support missions in Panama, Balkans, Middle East and Haiti. Colonel Schwab is a graduate of Air Command and Staff College and the Industrial College of the Armed Forces. He has commanded at the squadron, group and wing levels. Colonel Schwab has also served on staffs at the numbered air force, major command, Air Staff, and as a Military Assistant to the Executive Secretary in the immediate office of the Secretary of Defense. He earned advanced degrees from Central Michigan University (M.S. Administration), Air University (M.S. Military Arts and Science) and the National Defense University (M.S. Resourcing the National Strategy).
In addition to Military Strategy and Warfare, Dr. Severance teaches or has taught Strategic Logistics and Mobilization in the core curriculum;l electives in Strategic Geography, Geography and Warfighting, and Civil Military Relations and Challenges to Democratization; the NATO Europe Regional Security Study; the Reserve Components National Security Course; the JCRA National Security Seminar; the CAPSTONE Spouses Executive Development Course; and Values, Ethics and Leadership. He has served as the faculty leader for the Land Vehicles and, subsequently, the Land Combat Systems industry studies and has been an associate in the Financial Services Industry Study. During his tenure at the Industrial College, Dr. Severance also served as the Deputy Chair of the Military Strategy and Logistics Department and Program Director for the Military Strategy and Warfare course from July 1995 until July 2000 as well as Chairman of the Department of Military Strategy and Logistics from 2002 to 2004. In addition to his teaching responsibilities, Dr. Severance also conducts the annual Adult Learning Workshop for newly assigned faculty and has served for several years on the Faculty Committee.
Dr. Severance holds a B.S. (Cum Laude) in Education from Northeastern
University, an M.S. in Systems Management from Florida Institute
of Technology, and a Ph.D. in Human Development (Adult Learning)
from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Dr.
Severance's military education includes the Infantry and Transportation
Officer Basic Courses; the Transportation Officer Advanced Course,
the Rotary Wing Aviator Qualification Course, the Air Command
and Staff College, The Operations Research-Systems Analysis Military
Applications Course, Army Logistics The Defense Systems Management
College, and the Industrial College of the Armed Forces, where
he was a Distinguished Graduate of the Class of 1991.
Academic areas of interest include: The Civil War and the Battles of Gettysburg, Antietam, First Manassas and Fredericksburg; the Normandy, Market-Garden Campaigns and the Battle of the Bulge; Executive Education; Educational Evaluation; Hermeneutics; Geography and Geopolitics, Organizational Behavior; Alliance and Multinational Operations; and the Interagency Process.
Dr. Severance's professional presentations and publications include his dissertation entitled “Characterizing the Construct of Organizational Unity of Effort in the National Security Policy Process (May 2005), ”Organizational Responsibilities for National Security, Industrial College of the Armed Forces, November 2001; "The Geography of a Campaign," co-presented with Professor F.H. Dillon, III, at the annual meeting of the American Association of Geographers, Boston, Massachusetts, March 1999; "Strategic Geography," co-presented with Professor F.H. Dillon, III, at the annual meeting of the American Association of Geographers, Charlotte, North Carolina, March 1997; "Joint Live Fire (JLF) Lessons-Learned Workshop," Aircraft Survivability, Winter, 1993; "Live Fire Test and Evaluation Requirements for Directed Energy Weapons," presented at 8th Department of Defense Conference on Directed Energy Weapons, San Diego, CA, June, 1992; "The Threat of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Terrorism: Are Civil Emergency Services Prepared?" Executive Research Project, Industrial College of the Armed Forces, June 1991; "Victory Corps 2000 Regionalization Study," Headquarters, V United States Corps, June 1990; and "Analysis of the Battle of Mechanicsville," Executive Research Project, Air Command and Staff College, April, 1983.Functional Expertise:
NATO - Western Europe
Program Management - Test and Evaluation - Integrated Logistics Support - Strategic and Tactical Transportation - Economic Analysis
Korea - Western Europe
COL Shugart has a BA in US History from Washington and Lee University. He also holds a MA and PhD in US History from Texas A&M University, College Station. He is a 2012 Industrial College of the Armed Forces graduate.Functional Expertise:
Area of Interest:
US History (Civil War, WWI and WWII)
Colonel Smith is licensed to practice law in Virginia and Maryland. He has argued cases before a variety of state and federal courts, including the Virginia Supreme Court, Court of Appeals of Maryland, Court of Special Appeals of Maryland, U.S. Court of Appeals for the 4th Circuit, and the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. He is also admitted to practice before the U.S. Supreme Court, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, and the U.S. Army Court of Criminal Appeals.
Colonel Smith has a Bachelor of Science in Political Science from James Madison University, where has also received his first commission through the Army ROTC program. He holds a Juris Doctor from George Washington University and a Master of Science in National Security Strategy from the National War College.
She has served in several leadership roles as an Air Force Logistics Readiness Officer at squadron level, major command, and Air Staff. Additionally, she held key leadership roles in the Joint community, at NATO Headquarters, International Military Staff, Brussels, Belgium, and commanded the Logistics Training Advisory Group at NATO Combined Security Training Command-Afghanistan, in Kabul, Afghanistan. She also worked in Strategic Plans and Current Operations Directorates in the Defense Logistics Agency-Distribution Headquarters, New Cumberland, Pennsylvania.
She is a 1987 graduate of the Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps from Texas A&M University where she earned a Bachelor of Science Degree in Health Education. She also holds a Master of Science Degree in Logistics Management from the Air Force Institute of Technology. Col Sookma attended the Penn State Executive Program in Supply Chain Management, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill executive course in Advanced Program in Logistics Technology.
Air-to-Ground and Air-to-Air Weapons - Air Combat - fighter operations and support - Operational Test and Evaluation - Nuclear policy
He's published extensively on the economics of war and peace, the political economy of oil and gas, energy security, water security, resources and development, piracy, US-Islamic and US-Arab relations, US-Iran relations, Iraq, extremism, the economy of Egypt, the Egyptian military, labor markets in Egypt, Sudan, energy in Libya, and more. He's published in venues as widely diverse as The Arab Studies Quarterly, The New Republic, World Policy Journal, The Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, The Jordan Journal of International Affairs, ABC-CLIO, The United States Institute of Peace, The International Journal of Contemporary Iraqi Studies, Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Affairs, Middle East Online, UPI, The Middle East Times, The Daily Star (Beirut), Daily News (Egypt), The Independent Institute, Ashgate (book chapter), Routledge (Encyclopedia Chapter Forthcoming), Cairo Papers in Social Science, Comment Visions (EuroNews), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, The U.S. Congress (testimony on Canadian Oil), Oil and Gas Journal, and numerous other major daily publications and journals.
He's given well over 200 public lectures. He has been quoted and interviewed in the media of 5 continents via many TV and radio media including VOA, VOA-Turkish, Al-Hurra, Nile TV, NHK-TV (Japan), NPR, PRI, CNN, CBC, BBC (various of its radio stations), CBS, Stern (Germany), Veja (Brazil), Epoca (Brazil), Correio Brasilense (Brazil), Radio Australia, Deusche Welle, Die Zeit, Die Welt, Le Point, The Middle East Times, The Egyptian Gazette, Daily News Egypt, The Jordan Times, The Daily Star, The Straits Times, The Daily Mail, Bloomberg, Colombian National Radio, Semana (Colombia), Politico, Zee News (India), USA Today, Al Jazeera, Time Magazine, The New York Times, the LA Times, The Christian Science Monitor, The Toronto Star and numerous other Canadian Newspapers, C-Span, and more. He was also a columnist for the Middle East Times and on the editorial board of the Cairo Papers in Social Science while in Cairo.
He obtained his BA, Summa Cum Laude, from Brandeis University and has Ph.D. (with highest honors), M.Phil and MA from Yale University. He also is a graduate of the Seminar XXI program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. For six years before his time at NDU, Dr. Sullivan was at the American University in Cairo, Egypt, where he taught classes and did research on the economics, economic history, and political economy of the Middle East. Dr. Sullivan lived for 6 years in Egypt, has been involved with the region for close to 20 years, and has traveled extensively within it.Education
Economics and Politics of the Middle East and various parts of Africa, International Energy Security, Energy-Water-Land-Food Security Nexus, Piracy, Terrorism and Trade Security (Political-Economic-International Relations sides), Resources and Conflict (Esp. in the Middle East and Africa), Islamic Societies/ Arab Cultural Issues, US-Arab and US-Islamic Relations, International Economic Relations
Leadership Development - Information Technology Management - Budget and Administration - Joint Planning and Operations - Research (quantitative and qualitative)
Ms. Vargo previously served as a Professor of Acquisition on the faculty from 1999-2002. In addition to teaching the Defense Acquisition University Senior Acquisition Course and the Acquisition core curriculum, she led both the Advanced Manufacturing Industry Study and the China Regional Security Study.
Professor Vargo recently completed 30 years of active service as a Captain, Supply Corps, United States Navy. Ms. Vargo served in a wide variety of assignments both afloat and ashore including two sea tours supporting naval operations in the Mediterranean and Arabian Gulf.Functional Expertise:
Prior to his current assignment, he served as the Deputy Director of Logistics, Air National Guard Readiness Center, Joint Base Andrews, Maryland. He collectively represented the Air National Guard position on war fighting policy, weapon systems sustainment, and ongoing DoD initiatives. He assisted in directing the development and execution of logistics programs, the authorization of resources, and guidance for over 350 Air National Guard (ANG) aircraft maintenance, logistics plans, engineering, munitions, supply, and transportation units of the 54 States, Territories, and the District of Columbia.
CH Zust's reserve duty stations include; Air Force Reserve Chaplain at Offutt AFB, and Minnesota Army National Guard Chaplain to the 2-135 IN and officer/instructor at the Minnesota Guard Academy. His active duty assignments include; 24 FSB at Fort Stewart, 1-506 IN (AASLT) at Camp Greaves (ROK), 503d MP (ABN) at Fort Bragg, USA Student Detachment/ROTC at Princeton University, Ethics Instructor for the United States Army Sergeants Major Academy at Fort Bliss, 35th ADA BDE at Osan AFB (ROK) , 2-2 Brigade Combat Team at Fort Carson, Command Chaplain for the United States Army Research Development and Engineering Command at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Command Chaplain for the 19th ESC in Camp Walker (ROK), and the Training and Operations Chaplain for First Army at Rock Island Arsenal. He has supported deployments to Egypt, Somalia, Kuwait, Haiti, Bosnia, Kosovo, Iraq and Afghanistan. He is currently assigned to the Institute for National Security and Ethics in Leadership at the National Defense University.
CH Zust has a Bachelor of Arts in History from Colorado State University, and Master Degrees in; Divinity (Luther Northwestern Seminary), Education (Mankato State University), and Ethics (Princeton Seminary). He is a graduate of the; Air Force Officer Orientation Course, Air Force Squadron Officer School, Air Force and Army Basic Chaplain Courses, Army Chaplain Career Course, CAS3, Command General Staff College, Combat Ministry Course, Air Assault, and Airborne Schools.